Wednesday, February 13, 2013
Brucellosis - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Brucellosis is a bacteria, disease. Brucellosis is also called Mediterranean fever. It caused by a Brucella canis bacteria. These bacteria are passed among animals and vertebrates. The bacteria enters the body through mucous membranes and spreads from there to lymph nodes and the spleen. It also spreads to the uterus, placenta and prostate gland as well as other internal organs at times. In humans brucellosis can cause a range of symptoms that are similar to the flu and may include fever, sweats, headaches, back pains, and physical weakness. Severe infections of the central nervous systems or lining of the heart may occur. Brucellosis can also cause long-lasting or chronic symptoms that include recurrent fevers, joint pain, and fatigue. Brucellosis can be very common in countries where animal disease control programs have not reduced the amount of disease among animals. High risk of Brucellosis in South and Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East.
Unpasteurized cheeses, sometimes called "village cheeses," from these areas may represent a particular risk for tourists. The causative agent of brucellosis in dogs is Brucella canis. It is transmitted to other dogs through breeding and contact with aborted fetuses. Brucellosis can occur in humans that come in contact with infected aborted tissue or semen. The bacteria in dogs normally infect the genitals and lymphatic system, but can also spread to the eye, kidney, and intervertebral disc (causing discospondylitis). Symptoms of brucellosis in dogs include abortion in bitches and scrotal inflammation and orchitis Brucella organisms in samples of blood or bone marrow. If this method is used, two blood samples should be collected 2 weeks apart.Treatment of brucellosis mostly doxycycline and rifampin are used in combination for 6 weeks to prevent reoccuring infection.
Causes of Brucellosis
Direct person-to-person spread of brucellosis is extremely rare. It also spreads to the uterus, placenta and prostate gland as well as other internal organs at times. Humans are generally infected in three ways: eating , drinking and breathing. Unpasteurized goat milk and related dairy products is the main route of B melitensis transmission to humans. The most common way to be infected is by eating or drinking contaminated milk products. Sexual transmission has also been reported. For both sexual and breast-feeding transmission, if the infant or person at risk is treated for brucellosis, their risk of becoming infected will probably be eliminated within 3 days. Farmers and shepherds have similar exposure risks, and they also have exposure to aborted animals. Slaughterhouse workers, primarily those in the kill areas, become inoculated through aerosolization of fluids, contamination of skin abrasions, and splashing of mucous membranes. Laboratory workers (microbiologists) are exposed by processing specimens (aerosols) without special precautions. Veterinarians usually are infected by inadvertent inoculation of animal vaccines against B abortus and B melitensis.
Symptoms of Brucellosis
6.Weight loss and generalized aching.
Treatment of Brucellosis
1.Doxycycline and rifampin are used in combination for 6 weeks to prevent reoccuring infection.
2.Aminoglycosides streptomycin and gentamicin are effective against Brucella bacteria.
3.Gentamicin 5 mg/kg by intramuscular injection once daily for 7 days is an acceptable substitute
4.Provide supportive care for any specific symptoms and obtain appropriate tests targeted to affected organ systems as determined by history and physical.
5.All infected animals should be neutered or spayed to prevent sexually related transmission. All infected animals should be considered to be lifelong carriers of the disease.
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